New in November and December 2015 from the ISC

In November and December 2015 the following datasheets were published on CABI’s Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). You can explore the open-access ISC here: www.cabi.org/isc.

By peganum from Henfield, England (Cotoneaster horizontalis) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

1. Cotoneaster horizontalis

Cotoneaster horizontalis (wall-spray)

C. horizontalis is a woody, perennial, deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub with horizontally spreading branches, native to parts of China. It is an attractive garden plant with bright red berries which is the main cause for its widespread introduction across the world. In addition to keen gardeners, seeds of this plant are spread easily by birds. Unfortunately, it invades chalk grasslands (such as those of the South Downs in the UK), reducing species richness and diversity.

By Liné1 (Picture taken with my IXUS 800 IS) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

2. Cyperus papyrus

Cyperus papyrus (papyrus)

C. papyrus is a tall (up to 5 m), fast-growing, aquatic perennial sedge native to North Africa, well-known as being a source material for the making of paper (papyrus). Plumes of thread-like stems at the top of the plant make it particularly attractive and have resulted in its use as an ornamental plant and consequently its introduction to other countries. It can anchor itself in water via shallow roots or floats freely in clumps, facilitating its spread. The dense and extensive stands it can form can impede the flow of waterways and displace native species. It can reduce the amount of light that reaches submerged plants and can impact on habitats of wetland bird species.

Myroxylon balsamum (Peru balsam)

M. balsamum is a large tree of tropical America (40-45 m tall and 1 m wide) which produces lots of small whitish flowers and winged seedpods. Providing valuable timber and balsam resin, it has been widely introduced. It can form dense stands and can therefore outcompete native species by shading them. Characteristics which make it such a strong competitor include its large size, capacity for prolific seed production and ability to tolerate a wide range of light conditions. It is particularly problematic in Sri Lanka where native species can tolerate less varied light conditions and where natural enemies, such as diseases and insects, are absent.

By Meneerke bloem (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

3. Persicaria wallichii

Persicaria wallichii (Himalayan knotweed)

P. wallichii is a shrubby perennial herb that originates from the temperate western regions of Asia and the Indian subcontinent. It is reported as invasive in its native range of India and its non-native range of Belgium and the UK. In the USA, it can promote the erosion of river banks where it pushes out native stabilizing species, colonizes large areas, but then dies back in the winter. Furthermore, the dense mats of leaf litter it produces can prevent the germination of native species. It can compete for resources with trees and reduce shade along rivers and streams by displacing native woody species.

Roystonea oleracea

4. Roystonea oleracea

Roystonea oleracea (Caribbean royal palm)

R. oleracea is a palm that grows up to 40 m tall, with a distinctive, solitary, light grey, erect, cylindrical trunk. It is native to the Lesser Antilles, northern South America and Guatemala. This invasive species has been widely introduced for ornamental and landscaping purposes. It tends to be invasive in or near wetlands and can reduce diversity in areas where it becomes dominant. The dropping of large leaves and reproductive parts, which alter light intensity and humidity, have been proposed as possible reasons for these impacts. It is reported to be invasive in the swamps of the Guiana shield countries, in Panama and in the Atlantic forests of southern Brazil.

By Frank Vincentz (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons

5. Urtica dioica

Urtica dioica (stinging nettle)

U. diocia is a weedy species which, as many people know from experience, has hairs which can cause an itchy sting when touched. It occurs in pastures and grasslands in monospecific clumps which can take up considerable space and thus reduce hay yields and the amount of grass available. It is normally avoided by livestock, therefore restricting their free movement. In some circumstances it can be very hard to eradicate because of its large root mass which allows it to spread vegetatively once it has established.

Other new datasheets published in November and December include:

Acacia glauca (wild dividivi)
Argemone ochroleuca (Mexican poppy)
Canine distemper virus
Centella asiatica (asiatic pennywort)
Deroceras invadens (tramp slug)
Flacourtia indica (governor’s plum)
Portulaca quadrifida (chickenweed)
Solanum capsicoides (cockroach berry)
Tephrosia candida (white tephrosia)
Xyris complanata (yellow-eyed grass)

Figure references:

  1. Cotoneaster horizontalis by peganum from Henfield, England (Cotoneaster horizontalis) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  2. Cyperus papyrus by By Liné1 (Picture taken with my IXUS 800 IS) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  3. Persicaria wallichii by By Meneerke bloem (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  4. Roystonea oleracea by By Krzysztof Ziarnek, Kenraiz (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
  5. Urtica dioica by By Meneerke bloem (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

 

New in September 2015 from the ISC

In September 2015 the following datasheets were published on CABI’s Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). You can explore the open-access ISC here: www.cabi.org/isc

Common mullein by Fritz Geller-Grimm (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0), CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0), GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

1. Common mullein

Verbascum thapsus (common mullein)

A biennial herb which has naturalized in most temperate regions of the world. It grows vigorously, threatening native plants in meadows and forest gaps. Eradication is extremely difficult since each individual can produce 100,000-175,000 seeds that can remain viable for more than 100 years.

Fibropapillomatosis of sea turtles by Peter Bennett & Ursula Keuper-Bennett (Original photograph) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

2. Fibropapillomatosis

Fibropapillomatosis of sea turtles

A disease which most commonly affects the endangered green turtle. It causes internal and external tumours which can obstruct crucial functions such as swimming and feeding. First reported in the 1930s in Florida, it is now a pandemic.

Grey snake-bark maple by KENPEI (KENPEI's photo) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC BY-SA 2.1 jp (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.1/jp/deed.en)], via Wikimedia Commons Mnemiopsis leidyi (sea walnut) http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/75102

3. Grey snake-bark maple

Acer rufinerve (grey snake-bark maple)

With striped grey-green bark this tree is aptly named. It produces dense thickets and has been reported as an aggressive coloniser in acidic forests in Belgium. It has been introduced around the world as an ornamental plant, like so many other invasive species.

Sea walnut by No machine-readable author provided. Bastique assumed (based on copyright claims). [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC BY-SA 2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

4. Sea walnut

Mnemiopsis leidyi (sea walnut)

Being a comb jelly, this marine species has rows of ‘combs’ (groups of cilia) which it uses for swimming. It is an ‘ecosystem engineer’ which can change water transparency and water nutrient content. It has the impressive ability to regenerate from fragments larger than one-quarter of an individual.

 

Ficus microcarpa (Indian laurel tree)

A high-risk, aggressively invasive, strangling fig which is an agricultural weed and “garden thug” – how much worse could it be!? Reportedly invasive to some places where its specialist pollinator wasp has also been introduced. It starts life as an epiphyte, growing on a tree’s surface, before sending its aerial roots down to the ground. The roots end up forming a lattice around the trunk of the host tree which remains after the host tree dies.

Figure references

  1. Common mullein by Fritz Geller-Grimm (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0), CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0), GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons
  2. Fibropapillomatosis of green turtle by Peter Bennett & Ursula Keuper-Bennett (Original photograph) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons
  3. Grey snake-bark maple by KENPEI (KENPEI’s photo) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC BY-SA 2.1 jp (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.1/jp/deed.en)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons
  4. Sea walnut by ‘No machine-readable author provided’. Bastique assumed (based on copyright claims). [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC BY-SA 2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

New in July 2015 from the ISC

In July 2015 the following datasheets were published on CABI’s Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). You can explore the open-access ISC here: www.cabi.org/isc

July invasivesAkebia quinata (five-leaf akebia) – a highly invasive, aggressive vine native to East Asia, A. quinata has been introduced as an ornamental to Canada, Europe, Oceania and the USA. It can outcompete native understory plants and young trees, and its dense growth can block sunlight and prevent the germination of native plants.

Geophagus brasiliensis (pearl cichlid) – an ornamental freshwater fish native to southeast Brazil, G. brasiliensis has been introduced to Australia, Florida, the Philippines and Taiwan. Its fast growth, opportunistic diet and broad environmental tolerances have allowed it to colonize new waterways, particularly artificial and disturbed habitats.

Rudbeckia laciniata (thimbleweed)R. laciniata is an ornamental perennial plant that has been introduced to China, Japan, New Zealand and Europe. Native to eastern North America, thimbleweed grows best in bright, humid areas, such as wetlands, forest edges and roadsides. By producing lots of seeds and spreading from rhizome fragments, it can form dense monocultures which outcompete native plants.

Other invasive species datasheets recently published include:

Brugmansia suaveolens (white angel’s trumpet)
Chrysemys picta (painted turtle)
Macaranga tanarius (parasol leaf tree)
Paederia foetida (skunkvine)
Umbra pygmaea (eastern mudminnow)

Tuta absoluta on the rampage in Africa

Watch a new video illustrating the devastating impacts that Tuta absoluta is having on tomato yields, and what this means for farmers who rely on these crops for sustenance and income.

Dr Arne Witt, from CABI commented on the implications of Tuta absoluta infestation across Africa

“Tomatoes are one of the most widely cultivated crops in Africa and are grown in the backyards of almost every homestead across sub-Saharan Africa. This important cash crop and source of vitamins is now threatened by the recent arrival of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta.

This Invasive Alien Species is rapidly moving down the African continent, having already decimated crops in Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya and northern Tanzania. Growers are at their wits end as to how best they can control this pest and many have abandoned tomato growing altogether. The race is on to prevent its spread further south with various interventions planned to mitigate its impact in areas where it is already present.”

For more information on Tuta absoluta visit the Invasive Species Compendium and the Plantwise Knowledge Bank.

New in January 2015 from the ISC

In January 2015 the following datasheets were published on CABI’s Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). You can explore the open-access ISC here: www.cabi.org/isc.

Clerodendrum thomsoniae Invasive Species Compendium datasheet

Clerodendrum thomsoniae Invasive Species Compendium datasheet

Clerodendrum thomsoniae (bleeding glory bower)native to West Africa, this vine has been widely cultivated in tropics and subtropics worldwide, and is naturalised in many places, including the USA, Australia and the Galapagos Islands. Despite being related to some particularly serious invasives, such as C. chinense and C. quadriloculare, the impacts of bleeding glory bower are so far limited.

Cortaderia jubata (purple pampas grass)familiar to many of us as a garden ornamental, C. jubata is a multipurpose tussock grass native to South America. Surprise surprise, this towering, fast-growing, prolific plant has become a serious invasive in several places around the world, displacing native vegetation and suppressing the growth of young trees. Dense stands of C. jubata can also pose a fire hazard.

Opuntia monacantha (common prickly pear) – another introduced Opuntia, another tale of woe. Opuntia monacantha has been introduced around the world as a fruit and fodder plant since the 1700s. Its ability to regrow from broken and scattered cladodes allows it to quickly form dense, impenetrable thickets. Fortunately, biocontrol of the common prickly pear has proved successful in several countries.

New in November 2014 from the ISC

In November 2014 the following datasheets were published on CABI’s Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). You can explore the open-access ISC here: www.cabi.org/isc

Clerodendrum indicum Invasive Species Compendium datasheet

Clerodendrum indicum Invasive Species Compendium datasheet

Clerodendrum indicum (Turk’s turban) – this small shrub, native to temperate and tropical Asia, has been deliberately introduced principally to the Americas as an ornamental. Having long since escaped from cultivation, it is now established in the neotropics. Rapid growth and the ability to reproduce by seeds, rooted cuttings and suckers have contributed to its spread, although C. indicum does not appear to be as invasive as other species in the Clerodendrum cohort.

Potamopyrgus antipodarum (New Zealand mudsnail) – native to New Zealand, this aquatic snail has been introduced to Europe, North America, Australia and Asia. Females are parthenogenetic, meaning they can reproduce without males. This allows a new population to be founded by a single female – and with an average of 230 offspring per adult per year, P. antipodarum can quickly become very abundant. Its ability to survive desiccation for several days allows this snail to be spread by birds and anglers. It is currently considered invasive in Spain, USA and Australia.

Cosmos caudatus (wild cosmos) – thanks to its prolific seed production wild cosmos can cause chaos in the tropics, where its fast growth and height (up to 2.5 m tall) makes it difficult to control. Thought to be native to southern Mexico, it is now found in Asia, Africa, throughout the Americas, Australia and some Pacific islands. C. caudatus is particularly adept at spreading in disturbed areas, pastures and roadsides.

 

Other invasive species datasheets recently published include:

Cyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern)
Vulpia myuros (annual fescue)
Clerodendrum bungei (rose glorybower)

New in October 2014 from the ISC

In October 2014 the following datasheets were published on CABI’s Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). You can explore the open-access ISC here: www.cabi.org/isc

Silybum marianum Invasive Species Compendium datasheet

Silybum marianum Invasive Species Compendium datasheet

Silybum marianum (variegated thistle) – this large, aggressive thistle was already recognised as a serious invasive way back in the 1800s. Native to the Mediterranean and parts of Asia and Russia, S. marianum is now present on every continent except Antarctica. Standing up to two metres tall, and armed with a spiky flowerhead and prickly leaves, the thistle can outcompete native plants, swamp farmland and impede the movement of people and animals. If eaten, S. marinaum can cause potentially fatal nitrate poisoning.

Lumbricus terrestris (lob worm) – after more than 2000 years of human-mediated introductions, the humble earthworm is now found in South Africa, India, Australia, New Zealand, Europe and North America, where it has picked up the exciting name nightcrawler. When introduced to an environment lacking native earthworms, L. terrestris can dramatically alter soil profiles. Thick leaf mats are quickly converted to humus, depriving native invertebrates of a habitat, altering the microbial community and changing the chemistry of the forest floor.

Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine) – native to Central America, this showy and fragrant but toxic shrub is now widespread throughout the Old and New World tropics, where it forms dense thickets that crowd out native flora. Its small and profuse seed means there is a high risk of further introductions. C. nocturnum is known to be invasive in Hawaii, the Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Western Samoa, Tonga, New Caledonia and New Zealand.

Other invasive species datasheets recently published include:

Acacia hockii (white thorn acacia)
Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth)
Dipsacus fullonum (common teasel)
Ehrharta erecta (panic veldtgrass)
Erodium botrys (long-beaked stork’s bill)
Erodium cicutarium (common storksbill)
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket)
Glechoma hederacea (ground ivy)
Hypochaeris radicata (cat’s ear)
Juncus planifolius (broadleaf rush)
Lactuca floridana (woodland lettuce)
Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass)
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle)
Malva pusilla (round-leaved mallow)
Marrubium vulgare (horehound)
Melilotus albus (honey clover)
Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal)
Nasturtium microphyllum (one-row watercress)
Odontonema callistachyum (purple firespike)
Oryza barthii (African annual wild rice)
Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel)
Parentucellia viscosa (yellow glandweed)
Paspalidium geminatum (Egyptian paspalidium)
Persicaria punctata (dotted smartweed)
Polycarpon tetraphyllum (fourleaf allseed)
Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)
Rubus rosifolius (roseleaf raspberry)
Sanchezia parvibracteata (sanchezia)
Silene gallica (common catchfly)
Stenotaphrum secundatum (buffalo grass)
Tibouchina herbacea (cane tibouchina)

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