Workshop held on future of Invasive Species Compendium

Members of the Invasive Species Consortium from the US, Mexico, Caribbean and South Pacific met in Washington DC on 4 August and unanimously agreed to keep the Invasive Species Compendium (ISC) an open access resource for a further five years. The ISC has been resourced by a diverse international consortium of government departments, development aid organizations and private companies. Consortium members agreed that work on the ISC to date was of global importance and utility, and should continue.

Invasive Species Compendium website

The Invasive Species Compendium website

The ISC is a global encyclopaedic resource that combines science-based information to support decision-making in invasive species management. Invasive species, such as non-native weeds, animals and microorganisms, are one of the main causes of biodiversity and economic loss worldwide, impacting livelihoods and human health. Since its launch, use of the ISC has continued to grow, now with over 400,000 users in 234 different countries. Read more of this post

New in July 2014 from the ISC

In July 2014 the following datasheets were published on CABI’s Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). You can explore the open-access ISC here: www.cabi.org/isc

Senna multijuga (November shower) is a shrub or tree native to South America that has been introduced to tropical regions around the world. It is tolerant of a variety of soil types and its seeds are easily dispersed by wind and people. Despite its ability to naturalize quickly and its invasiveness in Hawaii, S. multijuga continues to be spread intentionally as an ornamental plant.

Senna multijuga Invasive Species Compendium datasheet

Senna multijuga Invasive Species Compendium datasheet

Abrus precatorius (rosary pea) is a high-climbing, twining or trailing woody vine from the Old World tropics. Although the plant has a wide variety of uses, from medicine, food and sweetener to jewellery, horticulture and even as a weighing unit, the seeds are so toxic that a single seed can kill a human. This vine is known to be invasive to Cuba and many parts of Asia-Pacific, and is naturalized in many tropical regions including Hawaii, parts of the Marquesas and Singapore.

Senna spectabilis (whitebark senna) – epithets range from ‘environmental weed’ to ‘garden thug’ for this resilient and fast-growing tree. Native to tropical America, S. spectabilis is considered invasive in Australia, Uganda, Tanzania, Hawaii, French Polynesia and Cuba. It can spread rapidly to create monocultures and place native flora at risk.

 

Other invasive species datasheets recently published include:

Senna surattensis (golden senna)

Senna bacillaris (whitebark senna)

New in June 2014 from the ISC

In June 2014 the following datasheets were published on CABI’s Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). You can explore the open-access ISC here: www.cabi.org/isc

Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade) is a very aggressive woody vine able to invade natural forests, natural grasslands, forest margins, urban bushland, riverbanks, crops, pastures, roadsides, disturbed sites and waste areas. Once established, it is able to grow forming dense monocultures that smother native plant species.

Solanum seaforthianum Invasive Species Compendium datasheet

Solanum seaforthianum Invasive Species Compendium datasheet

Astatoreochromis alluaudi (Alluaud’s haplo) is a cichlid fish native to East African rift lakes, satellite lakes and river systems. Common in the aquarium trade, it was also widely introduced into novel river and lakes systems in East Africa for the biological control of molluscs, where it is now widespread.

Calonectria pseudonaviculata (Buxus blight) is a fungal plant pathogen. It was identified relatively recently in the UK as an introduced species causing a devastating shoot blight of boxwood (Buxus spp.) plants that are commonly used in gardens and landscaping. This pathogen has been reported from other European countries in recent years, and may have been transported in asymptomatic infected plants or propagating materials. It survives well in plant debris and probably also in soil.

 

Other invasive species datasheets recently published include:

Alpinia zerumbet (shell ginger)

Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier)

Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (no common name)

Sanchezia speciosa (shrubby whitevein)

Senna septemtrionalis (smooth senna)

Thunbergia fragrans (whitelady)

Zingiber montanum (cassumunar ginger)

New in May 2014 from the ISC

In May 2014 the following datasheets were published on CABI’s Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). You can explore the open-access ISC here: www.cabi.org/isc

Tithonia diversifolia (Mexican sunflower) has been introduced to tropical parts of Asia and Africa and some Pacific islands from its native Mexico, Central America and Cuba. The combined might of rapid vegetative reproduction, hundreds of thousands of seeds and a high tolerance of heat and drought all contribute to this herbaceous plant’s invasiveness. Dense stands prevent the growth of young native plants.

Tithonia diversifolia Invasive Species Compendium datasheet

Tithonia diversifolia Invasive Species Compendium datasheet

Native to the Mediterranean region, Carduus pycnocephalus (Italian thistle) has been introduced around the world, presumably accidentally. Dense infestations of the thistle in pastureland can smother smaller plants, reduce livestock access to grass and even injure animals. It may also contribute to wildfires in California.

The ornamental shrub Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle) has become invasive in many tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Originally planted around along roads and around homes, it has since spread to waste ground, disturbed sites and open grasslands in a variety of habitats, from South Africa to the Virgin Islands.

 

Other invasive species datasheets recently published include:

Indigofera spicata (creeping indigo)

Elephantopus mollis (elephant’s foot)

Briza maxima (large quaking grass)

Indigofera tinctoria (true indigo)

Ipomoea ochracea (fence morning-glory)

 

New in April 2014 from the ISC

In April 2014 the following datasheets were published on CABI’s Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). You can explore the open-access ISC here: www.cabi.org/isc

Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan) – Australia, Brazil, Central America and many Pacific islands are all threatened by this aggressive herbaceous vine. Once introduced into a suitable climate, often as an ornamental, it quickly establishes and spreads both sexually and vegetatively. T. alata is capable of smothering native vegetation, killing host trees, out-competing understory plants and negatively affecting the germination and establishment of native plants.

Thunbergia alata Invasive Species Compendium datasheet

Thunbergia alata Invasive Species Compendium datasheet

Indigofera hirsuta (hairy indigo) – native to Africa, Asia and Australia, this herbaceous legume has been widely introduced as a crop and forage plant. Its ability to adapt to a wide range of soil types, spread quickly and regenerate – even in burnt-out ground – has led it become invasive in many Pacific islands. It is also considered a weed in China, Brazil and parts of the USA.

Urochloa mutica (para grass) – U. mutica has been widely introduced to tropical and subtropical regions as a fodder grass. This species’ aggressive growth, high productivity and allelopathic abilities have allowed it to become one of the worst weeds in the USA, Mexico, Central America and Australia.

Other invasive species datasheets recently published include:

Allamanda cathartica (yellow allamanda)

Emilia fosbergii (Florida tassel-flower)

Zingiber zerumbet (shampoo ginger)

Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)

The XIV International Symposium on the Biological Control of Weeds, Kruger National Park, South Africa, March 2014

In March 156 delegates from 24 countries travelled to the Kruger National Park in South Africa to attend the XIV International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (ISBCW) which was held at the Nombolo Mdhuli situated in the Skukuza Camp (2 – 7 March 2014). This quadrennial international symposium is a prestigious conference which provides delegates with an opportunity to present novel research on all aspects of biological weed control, to reflect on past experiences and discuss the way forward for the discipline and – this goes without saying – to catch up with old friendships and forge new ones. Three years on from the previous symposium in Hawaii and timed to commemorate “100 years of weed biological control in South Africa” 1, the African continent hosted the meeting for the second time in its history (the first time being the IX ISBCW held in Stellenbosch, South Africa in 1996). However, perhaps partly because of the increasingly severe constraints on funding and failure to gain official approval from respective governments/organizations, which made it impossible for many people to attend, this year’s symposium saw lower delegate numbers than previous ones. Some of the traditional “strongholds” in weed biocontrol, i.e. Australia, USA and Canada were clearly underrepresented, while the high number of European participants reflected the rapidly increasing interest in weed biocontrol in this part of the world. Sadly, apart from the participants from South Africa, only one other African country (Kenya) was represented. Last, but not least, it was an important and positive feature of attendance at this symposium that up-and-coming, younger scientists from all over the world were very well represented and the presence, prominence and enthusiasm of the next generation of weed biocontrol scientists at the XIV ISBCW seems to bode well for the future of the discipline.

Nombolo Mdhuli Conference Centre, Skukuza Rest Camp, Kruger National Park

Nombolo Mdhuli Conference Centre, Skukuza Rest Camp, Kruger National Park. Host venue for the XIV International Symposium on the Biological Control of Weeds (Photo: Marion Seier)

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New in March 2014 from the ISC

In March 2014 the following datasheets were published on CABI’s Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). You can explore the open-access ISC here: www.cabi.org/isc

Bothriochloa pertusa (pitted beard grass) - B. pertusa is a perennial grass native to eastern and southern Asia. It has been widely introduced in the Americas, Australia and the Pacific, either accidentally or probably in some cases deliberately for use as a forage grass. It has established itself in many native habitats where it is able to out-compete many native species due to its ability to establish dense mats and shade out slower establishing species.

Bothriochloa pertusa Invasive Species Compendium datasheet

Bothriochloa pertusa Invasive Species Compendium datasheet

 

Portunus segnis (blue swimming crab) – P. segnis is a marine nocturnal crab native to the western Indian Ocean. It is now considered established in the Mediterranean but invasive in the east and potentially invasive in the central and western Mediterranean. It is an active predator, tolerant to a wide range of temperatures and salinities and capable of reproducing throughout the year, with long-lived planktonic larval stages. Global warming is also expected to favour this tropical species.

Xanthium spinosum (bathurst burr) – X. spinosum is a highly invasive plant classified as one of the world’s worst weeds. It is now widely distributed throughout many regions of the world, where it is a common agricultural and pasture weed and a declared noxious species in many countries. Originating in South America, it has spread widely, probably via its spiked seeds which attach to animals and clothing or are a contaminant of hay or other products. It produces prolific amounts of seed that germinate easily. X. spinosum can quickly dominate large areas, outcompeting crops, forage plants and native flora. Control is possible but requires significant effort. There is considerable ongoing research into various methods including biological control.

 

Other invasive species datasheets recently published include:

Anredera cordifolia (Madeira vine)

Anthoxanthum odoratum (sweet vernal grass)

Opuntia monocantha (common prickly pear)

Green Invasion: Destroying Livelihoods in Africa [Video]

CABI, together with Tmax Productions, have produced a video called the ‘Green Invasion – Destroying Livelihoods in Africa.” The short film (approx. 7mins long) details how invasive weeds are impacting on the lives of rural communities in East Africa.

Although a large number of non-native species have become invasive in the region, this film focusses on four of the most problematic species namely Chromolaena odorata (Devil weed), Parthenium hysterophorus (famine weed), Prosopis juliflora (Mathenge) and Opuntia stricta (erect prickly pear). The excellent footage shows the extent of  weed infestations with accounts from community members on how these invasive plants are destroying the natural resource base on which they depend. It is clear that invasive weeds are destroying traditions, cultures and a way of life for millions of people on the continent.

However, all is not lost. The film notes that if effective management programmes are implemented, including biological control, we can make a difference to many people’s lives.

Although of general interest, the film is intended to raise the profile of invasive species and their impacts on livelihoods amongst donors and governments. We need them to take action and provide support for initiatives to manage one of the biggest threats to economic development on the planet.

Arne Witt
CABI Regional Coordinator, Invasives (Africa & Asia)
@WittArne


Lakes poisoned to halt topmouth gudgeon invasion

Several lakes in Hampshire are being poisoned in a bid to control topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), an invasive non-native fish first introduced to Britain in the 1980s which has become more widespread in recent years.

Topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva)

Topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva)
(Photo credit: Melania, Wikimedia Commons)

The fish, native to Asia, has spread across much of Europe in recent decades, travelling along waterways and facilitated by illegal fish stocking. Its impacts are significant and include predation on native and farmed fish eggs, resource competition and the ability to host and transmit the rosette agent (Sphaerothecum destruens), a fish parasite that is particularly devastating to Salmonid species such as trout and salmon

The piscicide, Rotenone, is to be applied to the lakes following the removal of native fish in an effort to eradicate topmouth gudgeon whilst limiting non-target impacts. The method has been used by the Environment Agency at a number of sites over the last decade as part of a wider strategy to eradicate topmouth gudgeon from England and Wales. Rotenone breaks down over several weeks, after which the site can be re-stocked with native and/or farmed fish species. Whilst the intervention is fairly drastic, it is considered necessary to prevent the further spread of topmouth gudgeon and limit its likely environmental and economic impacts.

Find out more about the topmouth gudgeon and hundreds of other invasive species at CABI’s open access Invasive Species Compendium.


Dr Paul Fisher
Communications Manager, CABI

The urgent need for evidence based policy in invasive species management

Hundreds of invasive species experts gathered last week, 23-27 October, in Qingdao China at the 2nd International Congress on Biological Invasions. High on the agenda was how policy makers can respond to the accelerating risk posed by invasive species as international trade increases and climate change opens up new opportunities for invasion.

Prof. Daniel Simberloff speaking at the ICBI plenary session

Prof. Daniel Simberloff speaking at the ICBI plenary session (Photo Credit: CABI)

In a session chaired by Prof. Daniel Simberloff on ‘Approaches in the International Policy Arena’, CABI was given the key note speaker position to showcase the contribution that systematic reviews can make in converting scientific evidence into practical evidence-based policy.

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